Radiocarbon dating price list
Radiocarbon dating price list
As it turned out, after Frei's tapes were examined following his death in 1983, they also had very few pollens Skeptics have argued that the flower images are too faint for Danin's determination to be definite, that an independent review of the pollen strands showed that one strand out of the 26 provided contained significantly more pollen than the others, perhaps pointing to deliberate contamination.Skeptics also argue that Max Frei had previously been duped in his examination of the Hitler Diaries and that he may have also been duped in this case, or may have introduced the pollens himself. Beaulieau has stated that Frei was a self-taught amateur palynologist, was not properly trained, and that his sample was too small.
The shroud is held up by believers as evidence not only of Christ's existence but also of his divinity. In doing so, the Church forged hundreds of texts, which were constantly reworked, mutilated and interpolated over the centuries.It must be therefore asked why force, forgery and fraud were needed to spread the "good news" brought by a "historical son of God." Despite claims to the contrary, carbon-14 dating conducted in 1988 has proved the shroud cloth was created during the 13th or 14th centuries AD/CE.In the Shroud of Turin article on Wikipedia, we read: After years of discussion, the Holy See permitted radiocarbon dating on portions of a swatch taken from a corner of the shroud.When it was asserted that the C-14 date was "distorted" by the possible use of a newer patch of cloth or the carbon from a fire in the 16th century that left several burn holes in the shroud, a test in 2008 confirmed the original C-14 dating of the 13th to 14th centuries by demonstrating that the piece of cloth previously used indeed was "representative of the whole." The carbon-14 date of the 13th to 14th century coincides with the shroud's first appearance in the historical record, in the possession of a French knight in 1360.Thus, we are lacking a provenance for the shroud and can hardly make any scientific historical claim for its origin.One thing that is well known to botanists is that the range within which many wild plants grow contracts under pressure from agriculture, civilization, industry and climate changes, and can expand due to the inadvertent or deliberate transport of seeds in cargo along trade routes.
These shroud researchers asserted (using a database that covered only Israel, it seems, along with other available reports of the plant's range, which I presume to be reliable for the sake of argument) that Z.The "blood" has been definitively proved to be composed of red ocher and vermilion tempera paint." There remains a debate among the faithful, however, as to the nature of the supposed paint or pigments and whether or not they are present on the shroud.The claims of pollen supposedly found on the shroud, allegedly indicating that the cloth was manufactured in the Middle East before the eighth century, have been discredited as "fraud" and "junk science." The person who originally claimed to have found the pollen on the shroud, Max Frei, has been accused of "sleight of hand" in reporting that pollen samples he took from living plants were subsequently found on the shroud.Although some claim the shroud impression contains human blood, that contention has never been proved by science, and the trickles of blood on the head appear to confirm that the image is a forgery, as the blood would have been matted in the hair, not running down the scalp.As concerns the so-called blood purportedly on the shroud, CSICOP says: BLOOD.At one point, a number of churches claimed the one foreskin of Jesus, and there were enough splinters of the "True Cross" that Calvin said the amount of wood would make "a full load for a good ship." The list of absurdities and frauds goes on, and, as Pope Leo X was depicted as exclaiming, the Christ fable has been enormously profitable for the Church.